Harvesting & Logistics Toolsets
BioSAT is a model for estimating costs for procuring cellulosic biomass to biomass-using facilities. Currently, we have gathered data to reflect the biomass supply in the 13 Southern United States, and our data development is on-going to expand our reach for 20 Northern States.

When detailing the logistical cost of cellulosic biomass transportaion, BioSAT developed a Trucking Cost Model to estimate the cost. Trucking costs are a function of: variable costs which are dependent on haul time; fixed costs which are dependent on haul distance, and the quantity of cellulosic biomass demanded at a specific location.
BioSAT currently offers three logistic toolsets in the public domain.
The BioSAT Trucking Cost Model was adapted from Berwick and Farooq (2003) Trucking Cost Model for Transportation Managers. The model calculates the operation cost for a single round trip haul of 11 hours or less for an owner operated, non-specialized tractor-trailer hauling class 50 cargo.
Merchantable Trees Costs
Merchantable tree harvesting costs are estimated by the Auburn Harvest Analyzer (AHA) Cost Models created by Shawn Baker and Dale Greene from the Center for Forest Business, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources at the University of Georgia. These cost models were specially developed for BioSAT. The harvesting cost models generate roundwood production costs from stands harvested via the defined harvesting systems. The primary drivers for the models are quadratic mean diameter, tons per acre removed, trees per acre removed, tract size, and average height of dominant trees (in hardwood stands only, if available).
Logging Residue Costs
The Fuel Reduction Cost Simulator (FRCS) spreadsheet application is public-domain software used to estimate costs for fuel reduction treatements involving removal of trees of mixed sizes in the form of whole trees, logs, or chips from a forest. The Fuel Reduction Cost Simulator (FRCS) as modified for the Billion Ton Study (Perlack et al. 2005) by Dykstra (2008) was used to estimate the costs of harvesting logging residues (Fight et al. 2006; Stokes 1992). The FRCS was substantially revised by Dykstra (2008) including the development of new procedures to simulate harvests in the North (North Central and Northeast), the South, and the coastal West as well as the Interior West. Logging residue costs are estimated for "chipping tops and limbs at the landing" and "in woods harvesting of sub-merchantable material".
In the modified FRCS model the following harvesting operations are assumed for biomass collection (Dykstra 2008):
Manual felling and whole-tree extraction, either with conventional skidders or with cable systems; the simulator uses cable systems if the average ground slope is 40% or more;
Mechanized felling and whole-tree skidding where mechanized felling is not used with cable yarding.
For ground-based logging (defined as "in woods" logging residue in this report), the FRCS model calculated the production rates and costs for both of the possible alternatives (manual felling and mechanized felling).
The U.S. Forest Service reguarly updates the FRCS Models and User Guide for the newest version of FRCS and additional information click here.
Logging Residue Estimates
The Subregional Timber Supply (SRTS) model was used to estimate and predict logging residues for the southeastern U.S. SRTS uses U.S. Forest Service FIA data to project timber supply trends based on current conditions and the economic responses in timber markets (Abt et al. 2000). Abt et al. (2000) note that SRTS is a partial equilibrium market simulation model that can be used to analyze various forest resource and timber supply situations. It uses a biological inventory projection model and a conventional supply/demand framework to project future timber prices and inventories given exogenous assumptions about land area and demand.
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