Vocabulary of Biomass and Bioenergy
BioSAT Glossary Terms
Agricultural Residues – The above ground plant material remaining after the crop is harvested, including the leaves, hulls and stalks.
Appalachian Mountains Ecoregion – Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest--Coniferous Forest--Meadow Province. For complete land-surface form, climate, vegetation, soil and fauna information see USDA Ecoregion and Forest Type Descriptions.
At Landing Logging Residues – Logging residues derived from the limbs and unmerchantable tops of sawlog or pulpwood trees.
Barley – (Hordeum L.) Annual cereal plant and its edible grain. Residue ratio: Average bushel weight: 48lbs.
Bioenergy – The production, conversion, and use of material directly or indirectly produced by photosynthesis (including organic waste) to manufacture fuels.
Biomass – Any organic matter that is available on a renewable or recurring basis, including agricultural crops and trees, crop residues, wood and wood residues, plants (including aquatic plants), grasses, animal residues, municipal residues, and other residue materials.
Biomass Residues – Byproducts from processing all forms of biomass that have significant energy potential. Because these residues can be collected at the point of processing, they can be convenient and relatively inexpensive sources of biomass for energy.
BioSAT – An acronym for Biomass Site Assessment Tools.
Bioshed – Geographical area that biomass is sourced from.
Cellulosic biomass - The fibrous, woody, and generally inedible portions of plants that make up 75 percent or more of all plant material (more).
Clean Mill Residues – Mill residues that do not contain bark.
Clearcut – Tree harvesting where all of the trees on timberland are removed.
Corn – (Zea mays L.) Annual cereal plant grown in the United States and its edible grain, also known as Indian corn or maize. Residue ratio: Average bushel weight: 70lbs.
Delta Ecoregion – Lower Mississippi Riverine Forest Province. For complete land-surface form, climate, vegetation, soil and fauna information see USDA Ecoregion and Forest Type Descriptions.
Dry Tons – 2,000 pounds of dried biomass, at approximately 0% moisture content. All quantities and costs in BioSAT.net are quoted in dry tons.
Eastern Broadleaf Ecoregion – Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province. For complete land-surface form, climate, vegetation, soil and fauna information see USDA Ecoregion and Forest Type Descriptions.
Flatbed Trailer – Horizontal platforms on wheels designed to be pulled by a tractor on which a load is transported.
Green Tons – 2,000 pounds of undried (fresh) biomass, at the material's natural moisture content.
Gulf Coastal Plain Ecoregion – Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Province. For complete land-surface form, climate, vegetation, soil and fauna information see USDA Ecoregion and Forest Type Descriptions.
Hardwood – Wood from deciduous trees and woody plants.
Harvesting Cost – The costs of gathering trees from the forest or crops from the field and transporting them to a storage or on site loading area.
In Woods Logging Residues – Logging residues that are derived from whole trees that are too small or damaged to be used for conventional forest products.
Lake States Ecoregion – Laurentian Mixed Forest Province. For complete land-surface form, climate, vegetation, soil and fauna information see USDA Ecoregion and Forest Type Descriptions.
Logging Residues – The above ground woody portions of harvested trees that are not suitable for use as lumber or pulp. For merchantable trees, this includes the limbs and unmerchantable tops of the trees. This also includes whole trees that are too small or damaged to be used for conventional forest products.
Long Log Trailer – Horizontal beam(s) with bolsters, vertical poles on both sides that cradle the logs, on wheels designed to be pulled by a tractor on which a load of tree-length roundwood is transported.
Lowland Hardwood – Stands that have at least 10 percent stocking with a forest type of oak-gum-cypress or elm-ash-cottonwood.
Marginal Cost – The change in total cost that occurs when one additional unit is produced.
Merchantable Trees – Trees of high enough quality to be sold as pulpwood or sawtimber.
Merchantable Trees, Gross Growth – Average annual change in volume of merchantable size trees on timberland in dry tons.
Merchantable Trees, Net Growth – Gross growth minus mortality, where mortality is the average annual death of merchantable size trees on timberland in dry tons.
Merchantable Trees, Removals – Average annual harvested volume of merchantable size trees on timberland in dry tons.
Merchantable Trees, Total – All live volume of merchantable size trees on timberland in dry tons.
Mill Residues – Wood wastes that are generated in wood-using mills when wood or wood products are converted to other products. Examples are slabs, edgings, trimmings, sawdust, shavings, veneer cores and clippings, and pulp screenings. Includes bark residues and wood residues (both coarse and fine materials) but excludes logging residues.
Mixed Natural Softwood and Hardwood – Stands in which hardwoods constitute a plurality of the stocking but in which pines account for 25 to 50 percent of the stocking.
Moisture Content (MC) – The weight of the water contained in a material, usually expressed as a percentage of weight, either oven-dry or as received.
Natural Softwood (a.k.a. Natural Pine) - Stands that (a) have not been artificially regenerated, (b) are classed as a pine or other softwood forest type, and (c) have at least 10 percent stocking.
Northeast Ecoregion – Adirondack-New England Mixed Forest--Coniferous Forest--Alpine Meadow Province. For complete land-surface form, climate, vegetation, soil and fauna information see USDA Ecoregion and Forest Type Descriptions.
Oat – (Avena L.) Annual cereal plant and its edible grain. Residue ratio: Average bushel weight: 32lbs.
Pine Plantation – Stands that (a) have been artificially regenerated by planting or direct seeding, (b) are classed as a pine or other softwood forest type, and (c) have at least 10 percent stocking.
Pulpwood – Wood used for the production of wood pulp.
Renewable Energy Resource – An energy resource that can be replaced as it is used. Renewable energy resources include solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, and biomass.
Resource Cost – The land utilization cost. This can be the costs of ownership and maintenance of the farm fields/ forest land, the price paid to the owner of forest land by harvesters, or the price paid to biomass suppliers.
Sawtimber – Wood used for lumber.
Short Log Trailer – Also known as a 'Pup' trailer. Horizontal beam(s) with bolsters, vertical poles on both sides that cradle the logs, on wheels designed to be pulled by a tractor on which a load of roundwood is transported. Shorter in length than the log version, short log trailers may be designed so two trailers can be pulled by one tractor.
Softwood – Wood from conifer trees and woody plants.
Sorghum – (Sorghum bicolor L.) Annual cereal plant and its edible grain. Residue ratio: Average bushel weight: 56lbs.
Thinning – Tree harvesting where only a percentage of the trees on timberland are removed.
Total Cost – Sum of the all the harvesting costs, resource costs, and transportation costs for the annual biomass demand quantity.
Tractor-Trailer Truck – A truck consisting of a tractor pulling a detachable trailer on/in which a load is transported. BioSAT uses an average load of 25 tons.
Transportation Cost – The capital and operating costs of hauling biomass residues in tractor-trailer truck.
Unclean Mill Residues – Mill residues that may contain bark.
Upland Hardwood – Stands that have at least 10 percent stocking and classed as an oak-hickory or maple-beech-birch forest type.
Van Trailer – Large box on wheels designed to be pulled by a tractor in which a load is transported.
Wheat – (Triticum aestivum L.) Annual cereal plant and its edible grain. Residue ratio: 5. Average bushel weight: 60lbs.
ZCTAZip Code Tabulation Area; a statistical entity developed by the U.S. Census Bureau for tabulating summary statistics from Census 2000. This new entity was developed to overcome the difficulties in precisely defining the land area covered by each ZIP Code. ZCTAs are generalized area representations of U.S. Postal Service (USPS) ZIP Code service areas. Simply put, each one is built by aggregating the Census 2000 blocks, whose addresses use a given ZIP Code, into a ZCTA which gets that ZIP Code assigned as its ZCTA code. They represent the majority USPS five-digit ZIP Code found in a given area.
External Glossary Links
BioSAT Partners